In October 2000, A. Izetbegović, a member of the three-person collective state presidium since 1998, resigned for health reasons; He was succeeded by the Bosniak Halid Genjać. The result of the parliamentary elections of November 2000 again confirmed the three “national parties” (SDA, HDZ, SDS); nevertheless, the moderate Social Democratic Party (SDP) became the strongest force in the state for the first time. It formed the government and continued to strive for a balance and cooperation between the three ethnic groups. In March 2001 the nationalist representatives of the Bosnian Croats (from the HDZ) declared the separation of the Croatian territory from the FBiH and the establishment of a self-government. The UN High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Petritsch, thereupon dismissed the representative of the Croatian ethnic group in the three-person state presidency, Ante Jelavić (* 1963), as well as other leading politicians of the HDZ for violating the constitution and the Dayton Peace Agreement. Jelavić’s successor was Jozo Križanović (* 1944, † 2009). The constitutional amendment of the end of April 2002, decreed by the High Representative of the UN, should contribute to the further integration of the two entities. In the elections on October 7, 2002 for the federal parliament and the parliaments of the two entities, the nationalist parties of the three ethnic groups clearly won again and in January 2003 they formed a new central government. The return of refugees, the strengthening of political institutions and the promotion of weak economic growth (while fighting corruption and the shadow economy) were still the main problems. In January 2003, a joint state court began its work for the first time to rule on matters affecting the entire state. Also in January 2003 – within the framework of the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) – a »European Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina« (EUPM) took over the police tasks previously under the responsibility of the UN. The peacekeeping mission (»Althea« mission) was finally given over to the ESDP (EUFOR) on December 2, 2004. In response to Western pressure, the state parliament gave its approval on December 1, 2003 to a joint supreme command structure for the armed forces; In 2004 a joint Ministry of Defense was established. In 2004 the ESDP (EUFOR) was entirely responsible. In response to Western pressure, the state parliament gave its approval on December 1, 2003 to a joint supreme command structure for the armed forces; In 2004 a joint Ministry of Defense was established. In 2004 the ESDP (EUFOR) was entirely responsible. In response to Western pressure, the state parliament gave its approval on December 1, 2003 to a joint supreme command structure for the armed forces; In 2004 a joint Ministry of Defense was established.
On October 1, 2006, according to allcitycodes, presidential and parliamentary elections were held again. In the state parliament, the SDA remained the strongest party with 9 seats. In January of the same year, the German C. Schwarz-Schilling became High Representative of the UN, followed in July 2007 by the Slovak Miroslav Lajčák (* 1963). Encouraged by the independence of Kosovo, efforts to separate the Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina received new impetus; In February 2008 there were demonstrations, some of which were violent, in Banja Luka. Thereupon, on February 27, 2008, the International Peace Implementation Council extended the supervision of the High Representative for an indefinite period; originally Bosnia and Herzegovina was to be given full sovereignty by the middle of the year. On April 11, 2008, Parliament passed a police reform. Until then, the Serbian republic had refused to surrender some of its police powers to the state as a whole. In March 2009 the Austrian Valentin Inzko (* 1949) became the new high representative of the international community.
On October 3rd, 2010, the citizens of the state re-elected the state parliaments, the parliaments of the sub-republics and the members of the state presidium. The strongest forces in the state parliament were the SDP and SNSD, each with 8 seats. The SDA politician Bakir Izetbegović (* 1956), a son of the former President A. Izetbegović, succeeded in being elected to the three-person state presidency as a Bosniak representative. The representatives of the Croats and the Serbs, Žejko Komšić (* 1964) and Nebojša Radmanović (* 1949), could maintain their offices. Both were elected to the State Presidency in 2006. The formation of a new state government was only possible in February 2012. In the same year, the troop strength of the EUFOR-Althea operation was reduced, and the mandate of the EU Police Mission (EUPM) ended on June 30, 2012. In October 2013 took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the first time since 1991 a census took place. Domestic politics continued to suffer under the dominance of rival nationalist forces, which both blocked the development of a nationwide identity and hampered progress in the social and economic realm. In February 2014 there were protests against poverty and corruption in Sarajevo and Tuzla. Many people were injured in clashes between the police and the demonstrators. In May 2014, after heavy rainfall, the country was hit by a severe flood disaster, which further worsened the difficult economic situation. General and partial state elections were held again on October 12, 2014 at regular intervals. In the state House of Representatives, the SDA advanced to become the strongest force with 10 seats. The SNSD had 6 mandates, followed by the SDS and only in 2013 by Žejko Komšić founded the Democratic Front, each of which won 5 seats. Dragan Čović (* 1956), chairman of the HDZ BiH and advocate of a separate Croatian entity within the entire state, was newly elected to the state presidency. As a representative of the Serbs, Mladen Ivanić (* 1958), chairman of the conservative Democratic Party of Progress (PDP) and advocate of a moderate course, moved into the state presidency. Bakir Izetbegović was confirmed in office. After months of struggling to form a government at the national level, on March 31, 2015, parliament confirmed a multi-party cabinet under Denis Zvizdić (* 1964) from the SDA. In November 2015, the State Constitutional Court declared the on 9.1. national holiday celebrated by the Bosnian Serbs (»Day of the Serbian Republic [Republika Srpska]«) is unconstitutional. In a controversial referendum in the Serbian republic, 99.8% of those who voted were in favor of keeping the holiday.
On October 7, 2018, presidential, parliamentary and cantonal elections were held, with a turnout of 53%. Milorad Dodik (SNSD) was elected as the Serbian representative, Željko Komšić (DF – Demokratska Fronta) as a Croatian member and Šefik Džaferović (SDA) as a Bosniak member of the ethnically occupied, three-member state presidency. The nationally-minded Croatian representative D. Čović thus suffered a defeat. Before and during the election, over 400 reports of »irregularities« were registered, which were rated as a »critical situation«.