General information about Bulgaria
The official name is the Republic of Bulgaria (Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Bulgaria). Located in Southeast Europe. The area is 111 thousand km2. The population is 7.9 million people. (2002). The official language is Bulgarian. The capital is the city of Sofia (1.19 million people, 2002). Public Holiday. Day of liberation from the Ottoman yoke March 3 – Monetary unit – lion.
Member of the UN (since 1955), IMF (since 1990), WTO (since 1996), Central European Free Trade Agreement (since 1999), official candidate for EU membership, has the status of an invited member of NATO.
Geography of Bulgaria
According to allcitycodes, Bulgaria is located in the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula between 44°13′ and 41°14′ north latitude, 22°22′ and 28°36′ east longitude. The total length of the state border is 2245 km, incl. 686 km river and 378 km sea. In the north, Bulgaria borders on Romania, in the south – on Turkey and Greece, in the west – on Macedonia and Serbia, the eastern part of Bulgaria is washed by the Black Sea.
The natural conditions of Bulgaria are quite diverse. OK. 30% of its territory is occupied by mountain ranges and approximately 70% by flat and hilly lands. In the middle part of the country, Stara Planina (Balkan Mountains) stretches from west to east with the highest peak named after. Hristo Boteva (2376 m). Mountain ranges rise in the south and south-west of the country: Rila (the highest peak in the Balkans Musala – 2925 m), Pirin (Vihren – 2914 m), Rhodopes.
Bulgaria has relatively many rivers, but only the Danube is navigable. The rivers – Iskar, Tundzha, Maritsa, Yantra, etc. – are shallow and are used as a source of electricity and irrigation.
In the north is the most extensive Danubian hilly plain. In southern Bulgaria lies the fertile Thracian plain. The capital Sofia is located in the Great Sophia Basin. The Black Sea coast of Bulgaria is predominantly low with an extensive beach strip.
The features of the relief and climate in different regions determined the diversity of soil cover and vegetation. On the Danube Plain, soils are predominantly chernozem and gray forest podzolized; south of Stara Planina, brown and dense chernozems predominate; mountainous regions are characterized mainly by brown forest and mountain-meadow soils.
1/3 (3.9 million hectares in 1987) of the country’s territory is occupied by forests, of which approximately 2/3 is deciduous (beech, oak, hornbeam, etc.) and 1/3 is coniferous (spruce, pine, fir). ).
Of the minerals, lead-zinc, copper and iron ores, brown and hard coal, table salt, kaolin, gypsum, marble, etc. are of the greatest importance. Bulgaria is rich in sources (about 500) of mineral waters with high healing properties.
The climate of the predominant part of Bulgaria is temperate continental. In the south, especially in the valleys of the Struma and Mesta rivers, it is transitional to the Mediterranean. The average air temperature ranges from 11.8 to 13.2°C; minimum between 1.8 and 3°C; and the maximum is 23-25°C. The average annual rainfall is 650 mm. The beauty and diversity of nature, mild climate and extensive comfortable beaches attract numerous tourists to Bulgaria.
Population of Bulgaria
In 1965–85, there was a tendency towards an increase in the population (from 8.2 to 8.9 million people, respectively), which in the 1990s. changed to the opposite. To the beginning In 2002, the population decreased by 11% compared to 1985. The ethnic composition of the population is dominated by Bulgarians (approx. 84%, 2001). Of the other ethnic groups, the most numerous are Turks (9.5%) and Gypsies (4.6%). According to the 2001 census, Bulgarian is the mother tongue for 84.5% of the population, Turkish for 9.6%, and Roma for 4%. The ratio of births and deaths in the 20th century. led to a downward trend in natural population growth, which, however, to the end. 1980s was positive. In 2001, the birth rate was 8.6‰, the death rate was 14.1‰, and the infant mortality rate was 14.4 people. per 1000 newborns. In the 1990s natural growth became negative: -5.5‰ (2001). Average life expectancy (1998-2000) – 71.7 years, incl. men – 68.2, women – 75.3 years.
The population is aging. In the age structure, the proportion of young people (under 20 years old) decreased from 51.1% in 1900 to 21.8% in 2001, while the proportion of the elderly (60 years and older) increased from 8.4 to 22.5%. excess of the female population, to the beginning. 2002 men 48.7% of the population, women – 51.3%, 1053 women accounted for 1000 men. In the course of urbanization, the urban population rapidly increased, accounting for 46.5% in 1965 and 69.3% by 2002. Bulgaria is gradually raising the retirement age. In 2003, subject to certain conditions, it was 57 years for women and 62 years for men. Educational level of the population: St. 52% over the age of 7 have higher and secondary education (2001).
The dominant religion is Orthodoxy, which is followed by approx. 82.6% of the population, 12.2% Muslim, 0.6% Catholic, 0.5% Protestant, 3.6% not self-determined (2001).